Pre-Independent Period 

Toussaint Louverture (1801-1802)* 

Independent Period

  • Jean-Jacques Dessalines (January 1804 – October 1806)
  • Henri Christophe (December 1806 – October 1820)**
  • Alexandre Pétion (March 1807 – March 1818)***
  • Jean Pierre Boyer (March 1818 – March 1843)
  • Charles Rivière Hérard  (December 1843 – May 1844)
  • Philippe Guerrier (May 1844 – April 1845)
  • Louis Pierrot (April 1845 – March 1846)
  • Jean-Baptiste Riché (March 1846 – February 1847)
  • Faustin Soulouque (March 1947 – January 1859)
  • Fabre Geffrard (January 1859 – March 1867)
  • Sylvain Salnave (June 1867 – December 1869)
  • Nissage Saget (March 1870 – May 1874)
  • Michel Domingue (June 1874 – April 1876)
  • Pierre Théoma Boisrond Canal (July 1876 – July 1879)
  • Lysius Salomon (October 1879 – August 1888)
  • François Denys Légitime (December 1888 – August 1889)
  • Florvil Hyppolite (October 1889 – March 1896)
  • Tiresias Simon Sam (March 1896 – May 1902)
  • Nord Alexis (May 1902 – December 1908)
  • Antoine Simon (December 1908 – August 1911)
  • Cincinnatus Leconte (August 1911 – August 1912)
  • Tancrède Auguste (August 1912 – May 1913)
  • Michel Oreste (May 1913 – January 1914)
  • Oreste Zamor (February 1914 – October 1914)
  • Davilmar Théodore (November 1914 – February 1915)
  • Vilbrun Guillaume Sam (March 1915 – July 1915)
  • Sudre Dartiguenave (August 1915 – May 1922)
  • Louis Borno (May 1922 – May 1930)
  • Louis Eugène Roy (May 1930 – November 1930)
  • Sténio Vincent (November 1930 – May 1941)
  • Elie Lescot (May 1941 – January 1946)
  • Jean Dumarsais Estimé (August 1946 – May 1950)
  • Paul Eugène Magloire (December 1950 – December 1956)
  • Nemours Pierre-Louis (December 1956 – February 1957)
  • Franck Sylvain (February 1957 – April 1957)
  • Daniel Fignolé (May 1957 – June 1957)
  • François Duvalier (September 1957 – April 1971)
  • Jean-Claude Duvalier (April 1971 – February 1986)
  • Leslie F. Manigat (February 1988 – June 1988)
  • Henri Namphy (June 1988 – September 1988)
  • Prosper Avril (September 1988 – March 1990)
  • Ertha Pascal-Trouillot (March 1990 – February 1991)
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide (February 1991 – September 1991 / October 1994 – February 1996)****
  • Raoul Cédras? (1991 – 1994)*****
  • René Gracia Préval (February 1996 – February 2001)
  • Jean-Bertrand Aristide (February 2001 – February 2004)
  • Boniface Alexandre (February 2004 – May 2006)
  • René Gracia Préval (May 2006 – May 2011)
  • Joseph Michel Martelly (May 2011 – ?)

♦ ♦ ♦

NOTES:

* Although Saint-Domingue was still a French colony in 1801, by this point, Toussaint Louverture asserted his authority over most of the island and ruled with little interference from France until 1802. 

** Frictions between rival elites led the country to secede. Henri Christophe ruled in the North (and established a kingdom in 1811), while Alexandre Pétion became president of the South/West. Their terms therefore overlap. 

*** Boyer succeeded Pétion in 1818, re-united Haiti after Christophe’s death in 1820, then annexed the Dominican Republic to rule over the entire island until 1843. 

**** In 1991, Aristide was ousted in a coup. Three years later, he resumed his presidency thanks to American backing.

***** Raoul Cédras’s presidency (1991-1994) overlaps with that of Joseph Nérette (October 1991 – June 1992) and Emile Jonassaint (May 1994 – October 1994). It is difficult to determine a single coherent authority in this period.

♦ ♦ ♦

REFERENCES:

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Haiti: state against nation : the origins and legacy of Duvalierism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1989.

Haïti Culture. “Les présidents de la République d’Haïti.” Accessed March 15, 2014. http://www.haiticulture.ch/haiti_presidents_liste.html.

Haïti Mémoire et Culture. “Chefs d’Etat d’Haïti.” Accessed March 15, 2014. http://haitimemo.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=14&Itemid=78&lang=fr.

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